NVZ has already provided links to almost everything you need to know about deletion (and some stuff you don't), so I'm going to just outline the most relevant things about deletion of questions specifically. (Well, I'm trying to outline, but it turned out pretty long anyway...)
Being [closed] or [on hold] is the first step towards deletion
Users with enough rep can vote to close questions.
- The system will automatically delete questions that meet certain criteria (this process is called "Roomba"). Some of the questions that get deleted are old and had no activity (including upvotes) yet are not closed, but most of what gets deleted is questions that are closed. Unless it is reopened, this question of yours is going to get deleted soon by the system.
- High rep users can vote to delete questions that are closed. (See the privilege pages for 10k+ users and 20k+ users.)
It's best obviously to ask questions that don't get closed. The most important thing to do here to prevent the chance of closure is to show your research (I like what this answer says).
If your question is closed, you can use some of the steps here (see "Reversing Closure") to try to get it reopened.
There are fewer things that can be done if the question is deleted. If you think you'd be able to fix your question enough that it should be undeleted and reopened, ask about it here on meta, and include a link to the question and mention the improvements you want to make.
It's not uncommon for things to get deleted
When you post a lot, even if it's high quality, inevitably stuff gets deleted. In my case, ~2% of my posts are deleted (none of these posts were upvoted, however) and almost all of that deletion was due to answering questions that got closed, then deleted by Roomba.
Post deletion is soft deletion
When your question or answer is deleted, you will be able to see it if you have the URL. In addition, at the bottom of the lists of your questions and answers (found in your profile) will have a link to deleted recent questions and deleted recent answers respectively where you can find some of your deleted content.