WordNet is the state of the art ontology (to be described) for basic vocabulary of English. (there are many ontologies out there for technical vocabularies).
An ontology is a vocabulary along with relations among the terms that support the definitions. One of the most important relations is 'subset' or 'is-a' relation which gives both hypernyms and hyponyms (since the set of dogs is a subset of the set of mammals, the word 'mammal' is a hypernym of the word 'dog', and 'dog' is a hyponym of 'mammal'.
Because this is a tree-like (or really partial order) relation, and there are many relations with other properties, it does not form a simple list. But the WordNet vocab and relations are downloadable as a set of data that you can manipulate by programming.
Of course, as with much of electronic data, it is black and white, and may not encode things exactly as you see them. It may well have a good hypernym for shade, or it may have one that doesn't really suit your intuition.
Note that there is a difference between the concepts in a relation, and the words or terms used to express them. I.e. there may be a good concept that captures ideas of the dogs, the cats, and the bears, without including the rest of the carnivores, but there is no good existing single word for that single coherent concept. In other words, for a possibly very good and very common concept, there just may not be a single word for it.
See also Is WordNet trustworthy