Here's my situation: I'm currently proof-reading something a colleague of mine has written. The content is all okay, but his use (or non-use) of "the" is all over the place, because I assume his native language (Persian) doesn't have definite articles. (I'm not a native speaker either, but German has very similar grammar, so I guess it's easier for me.)
Anyway, I realized that I don't have a quick and easy rule for when "the" gets used and when it doesn't. Especially in the context of scientific writing. Some techniques or procedures get a "the" and some don't. For example you'd say "We apply Principal Component Analysis to our data" but you'd say "We then use the Fourier transform to...".
Is there a good source I could refer my colleague to so he can brush up a bit on his usage of "the"?