Reception and commentary
No. The existence of comments on a question do not indicate one way or another that a question is well received. Neither does the absence of comments.
It’s possible and observed that well-received questions can have comments or no comments. Equally, it’s possible and observed that poorly-received questions can have comments or no comments.
The content of those comments might, and often do, indicate how the community is receiving your question. As any commentary anywhere in life is used to praise, critique, or criticize works and behaviors. You have to read what they say. And you have to read them in good faith.
Assessing reception more generally
With respect to determining the reception of a particular Q: upvotes and in particular a net positive score indicate positive reception. Downvotes, a net negative score, close votes, actual closure, delete votes, and actual deletion all indicate negative reception (in that order).
There are also flags which anyone can cast but only mods can see and act on which are typically used for significantly inappropriate content (eg spam, abuse, insults, etc).
On net-zero-scored questions
A net zero score, with no other indication to go by (positive or negative comments, closure votes, etc) usually indicate a question which has just passed the bar for an acceptable question, and there’s not much more you can say for them.
Usually these are “meh” questions, of no particular interest to anyone but the OP, but they’ve nonetheless abided by the relevant standards.
That said, for rules (eg banning), badges, and a variety of other algorithmic applications on the site (as opposed to in people’s mental representation of the question), typically net zero-score questions are classified as “poorly received”.
For that reason, and because it’s not very hard to do, question authors should strive to learn to ask questions that consistently attract at least one or two upvotes (more precisely: a net score above zero), and which do not attract any close votes (whether or not the question is ultimately closed).
Outside of that, it’s best not to worry if you get a couple downvotes, every question attracts some, they’re inevitable, and they don’t matter so long as overall there are more upvotes than down.