For the Google link in the question, simply strip off everything not relevant.
q="you met's" is relevant and needs to stay, but the
& after that and everything else is irrelevant. You can even use just the domain name: for these links,
www. isn't needed. Note that some characters are expanded to their encoded form when displayed, but I typed
https://google.com/search?q="you met's" for the URL, and that's what was displayed in the answer preview.
If you want to get results in books, include the
https://www.google.com/search?q="you met's"&tbm=bks. There will be a similar specification for other result sets.
For links to ELU questions, you can omit almost everything except the post number for a post on the same site: this question is number 15230 on Meta.ELU, so you can enter a link with just a relative URL: link which is coded as
[link](/q/15230) and is a lot shorter than
It's this facility which explains why link shorteners are frowned upon — a link to a tinyurl URL shows no information about where that link will actually end up. Here's one which I will say will go to OED. It doesn't, but it's safe to click on: link to OED
https://tinyurl.com/yae6wd2m [Check the edit history if you want to see whether the link is still what I originally started out with: it could have been altered and there's no way of knowing the destination.]
Link shorteners are improved when there's a preview possible: this is the same link but to a preview page
https://preview.tinyurl.com/yae6wd2m which shows you exactly where it's going. With tinyurl it's possible for users to set a cookie so that they always get the preview, but that's an end-user setting. When you're constructing a link, using the
preview version of the URL forces that behaviour.