I couldn't find the answer anywhere. I know that the FAQ states a user is only able to earn 200 reputation per day. However, some users receive slightly more on some days, as evidenced by their reputation history. How is this possible? Do some activities continue to earn reputation once the cap has been reached, while others do not?
By getting accepted answers. The extra 15 points that you get for having a green check-mark next to your answer don't count towards the reputation cap.
Accepting answers to your own questions and being awarded bounties don't count against the cap.