I have been told that I have earned the privilege to access review queues, but not what that is. The announcement does not link the way new badges do. I have poked around but should be grateful for a "Review Queues for Dummies", if someone would take pity on a poor newbie. Strangely enough, it's not on "Questions that may already have an answer" (as opposed to questions about the details of RQs, including some nigh-flamewars), so perhaps I have now earned the Idiot badge..... Anyway, I have no intention of going near a RQ until I know what I am supposed to be doing. I may be dim tonight (blame the tropics), but I'm not a vandal or a troll.
You can find more information about this privilege in the Privileges section of the Help Center. Here is the link for the privilege you just received.
The queues provide a means by which users can help keep the site tidy. As you gain more privileges, you will be able to access more queues that will help you use your new privileges more effectively.
You have access to only two queues at this stage. It's explained in that post, but to recap, you can help review answers that were posted long after the question was asked (late answers) and first posts. Late answers are reviewed because they are often either spam or new users. First posts are reviewed because very often the first question or answer that a user posts is their worst one, and we want to make sure that the community helps those new users get started off on the right foot. Having these two queues available to you makes it easier for you to identify posts that might need editing or encouraging comments, or that might need to be flagged.
You are allowed to do reviews in these queues, but you are not required to. You can participate as much or as little as you like. You can earn badges from working the queues.