I don't believe that this information is available to users until they try to post a question. Moderators can find out if a user on their site has triggered the ban.
I wouldn't worry about deleting one question with an answer. The temporary ban is to prevent "help vampire" behavior, where a user posts a question, gets an answer, then deletes the question and posts another one, repeating the cycle in an attempt to avoid downvotes.
The reason that behavior is problematic is that questions and answers are intended to persist in order to help future visitors. Users who post off-topic or poorly worded questions rapidly and then delete them as soon as they have an answer are adding more work for the rest of the community without providing any benefit.
That said, you do not appear to have triggered the ban. I would also like to encourage you to consider un-deleting your question. There is nothing wrong with posting a duplicate question. It means someone else thought of it already and it was a good question!
Also it doesn't appear that your question was actually closed as a duplicate, which means there is still plenty of opportunity for good answers to appear. EL&U takes longer than SO to respond, so give it some time.
Just some food for thought. You can leave it deleted if you prefer.