Edit note 2:
The patient and long-suffering OP has now re-asked aspects of this question in three separate posts. So, there's now probably no harm in leaving this one closed.
This useful question on parts of speech got closed:
Arguably, it was a bit difficult to read in the original version. It has since been reformatted by the original poster and the question more clearly set out. I think it is precisely the kind of question we should have on a site for linguists and serious language enthusiasts. Can we reopen it please?