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Dictionaries Useful for finding definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and examples of usage. General-purpose dictionaries The online dictionaries listed here are broadly suitable for native speakers, providing major definitions and examples, pronunciations (including audio), basic etymology, and some usage notes. Some are among the most commonly cited ...


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Corpora Large collections of original source text. The online tools that are available for searching corpora, however, may be overkill for the average user, and may be confusing to use. English-Corpora.org - Formerly corpus.byu.edu, this is perhaps the most popular corpus search engine, created by Mark Davies at Brigham Young University. Key collections ...


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Thesauri Useful for finding synonyms of specific words. Merriam-Webster Thesaurus.com Oxford American Writer's Thesaurus (included with Mac OS X) Power Thesaurus WordNet


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Style The guidelines governing the presentation of written English are collectively referred to as style, and laid out in various rulebooks and manuals. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide a uniform presentation, to improve readability and as a mark of professionalism. Some industries, such as screenwriting, use specific formats, but any ...


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General Language and English Language Reference The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, 2nd ed. 2003. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, 3rd ed. 2010. Both are written and edited by David Crystal. They should be in every Anglophone classroom in the world, and should be consulted first about questions bearing on English. All works by ...


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Grammar McCawley's The Syntactic Phenomena of English. It turns out that the first three chapters of this classic 1998 grammar are available free on Google Books. The rest of the book is not. This seems to be very good marketing for University of Chicago Press, or whoever made this decision, because it gives a good and useful sample of what's in the book. ...


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Translation Dictionaries and Lexica Linguee - a search engine rather than an automatic translator, Linguee allows the user to find words and phrases in context in human-translated works, in addition to an editorial dictionary. bab.la - a language project by Andreas Schroeter and Patrick Uecker and sponsored by Langenscheidt providing 39 bilingual ...


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Historical Resources These are books of possible interest to people who are investigating word and phrase origins and want to know what meanings those words or phrase were said to have at various times in the past. Several of them do not show up in a direct Google Books search for them by title; I've run into the hidden ones by chance, while searching for a ...


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Requests for resources that help the community in doing research for better questions and answers should be on-topic on ELU meta. This actually goes against our established SE policy that meta should be for questions about the main site, but let's make an exception here. We have a user base that are experts in the language, and who else would know about ...


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Okay, I guess I should have added my answers here instead of above in the comments. So, I'll try again. Dictionary.com gives all the source references on one page, from English and slang to science, computing, and medical dictionaries, including History and Origin, all from specific dictionaries. It includes nearby words, related searches, and all words ...


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Some of the BYU corpora provide the function you want. The BYU interface, and the concepts involved, may present you with a steep learning curve, but the tools there are powerful. For example, "words with which" a given word is "commonly used" are called "Collocates". If you go to the BYU corpora page (linked in the first paragraph of this answer) and ...


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Mehhhhhhh, the name change isn't worth doing mass edits over. Nor is the change in URL, since you can click on most old URLs and be taken to the right page on the new site. There are many thousands of posts that link to oxforddictionaries.com (more specifically ~11k) and most of these links are still good and don't really need editing, since they just ...


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Dissection or Parse of Sentences Courtesy of https://english.stackexchange.com/a/233771/50720, I encountered the Link Parser.


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Lexipedia: For the word you search, it has: Nouns Adverbs Verbs Adjectives Synonyms Antonyms Fuzzynyms


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The problem with using the 'British English' corpus selection on ngrams is that the corpus includes American books that were published in the UK. It is not a selection of British texts, so it does not accurately represent English as used in the UK. This ngram for fantasize vs. fantasise is misleading. UK spelling convention is fantasise despite the ...


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A very nice book which seems to be exactly what you want is the following: Penguin guide to synonyms and related words For a large number of words it analyses the nuances of the different synonyms. To show you the book structure, I scanned an example page. You can see that for each key word there's a list of synonyms (the full word list can be found in ...


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Accessibility vs Discrimination I removed your pictures of text and requested an actual citation in their stead because text should be represented as text, not as pictures. It all comes down to accessibility. We’re trying to be accessible to as broad an audience as possible here. To that end, please do not post pictures of textual citations. Those cannot ...


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Fundamentally the real question about the acceptability or authority of some dictionary definition is “who is doing the lexicography?” The most respected organizations doing lexicographical research are well-known groups like Merriam-Webster, Oxford Dictionaries and American Heritage. These are organizations which have been making dictionaries for decades (...


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YourDictionary.com also has example sentences using specific words Crossword helpers: One Across OjoHaven's Crossword Solver


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When I took Old English as an undergrad we used Bright's Old English Grammar & Reader, which gives a decent start. I'm sure there are other beginning books you can find, perhaps on Amazon. Understand, though, that you immediately plunge into literature, and the survey of the grammar is designed to get you reading—for that is about all there is to do ...


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If you are interested in particular in African American slang, two useful mainstream resources are Clarence Major, From Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American Slang (1994) and Geneva Smitherman, Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner (1994). Of the two, Majors's book is far more comprehensive and scholarly, but Smitherman's is ...


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I recommend David Crystal's books, and especially his Cambridge Language Encyclopedias: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (3rd edition) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (2nd edition) There's practically no overlap between these two, which are both available in folio-size paperback. The second one has a section on the English alphabet,...


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I have a few very reliable sources. Paper Rater Grammar Check Spell Check Plus Polish My Writing and finally Online Correction


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Most of the people answering will probably know the basic meanings of the words already; I think looking them up is more for the asker's benefit, to see them, share them, and establish a starting place for people to help. I think for this purpose, the dictionary that is easiest for them to use would be acceptable, as long as it is not grossly inaccurate. ...


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Let's assume that you are thinking of synonyms as words that are 'nearby' in meaning, so that the lexicon is one bug graph with edges. The synonyms of a given word is simply the neighborhood of its node It seems like you are looking for the overlap of the neighborhoods of two different words. Roget's and dictionary-like thesauruses expect that you have ...


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tl;dr It was the simplest way to take the questions off Main. I've wondered about it, but perhaps one reason is that providing resource suggestions is about how to use the site: at least where to do your own research before asking a question. – Andrew Leach♦ I didn't find any reasons on ELU Meta for resources to be on-topic there. I also looked briefly ...


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Short answer: No, there's no perfectly correct dictionary, but the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) will probably get you what you want. Longer answer: There are a number of issues you bring up. 'Correct' for a dictionary is a strange usage. Does one typo make it 'incorrect'? Do a handful of oversimplifications make it 'incorrect'? I don't think you mean ...


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The meaning of the question seems clear to me (I say this as there seems to be some confusion in the comments): get all synonyms of the word in question, and return the ones that are least commonly used. For a view on frequency, you could use Google's Ngrams viewer, which has a large corpus of book texts. This requires you to enter a comma-separated ...


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Green's Dictionary of Slang is a highly regarded and well-curated dictionary that I would feel safe calling "the best online slang dictionary" in a holistic sense. The website is easy to use, and with a paid subscription you can access its massive collection of citations, now available for free without a subscription. Even with GDoS, the granularity is not ...


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As a TEFL trainer, I always found R. Murphy's English Grammar in Use very useful, especially for new native Engish speaking teachers who didn't have much knowledge of their own grammar, as they learnt the names of tenses and constructions from it along with their students. http://www.cambridge.org/gb/cambridgeenglish/catalog/grammar-vocabulary-and-...


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